Citrus (Sugar Orange)
Citrus is a common term and genus (Citrus) of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. The most recent research indicates an origin in Australia, New Caledonia and New Guinea. Some researchers believe that the origin is in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeast India, Burma (Myanmar) and the Yunnan province of China, and it is in this region that some commercial species such as oranges, mandarins, and lemons originated Citrus fruit has been cultivated in an ever-widening area since ancient times.; the best-known examples are the oranges, lemons, grapefruit, and limes.
These plants are large shrubs or small to moderate-sized trees, reaching 5-15 m (16-49 ft) tall, with spiny shoots and alternately arranged evergreen leaves with an entire margin. The flowers are solitary or in small corymbs, each flower 2-4 cm (0.79-1.57 in) diameter, with five (rarely four) white petals and numerous stamens; they are often very strongly scented.
The fruit is a hesperidium, a specialised berry, globose to elongated, 4-30 cm (1.6-11.8 in) long and 4-20 cm (1.6-7.9 in) diameter, with a leathery rind or "peel" called a pericarp. The outermost layer of the pericarp is an "exocarp" called the flavedo, commonly referred to as the zest. The middle layer of the pericarp is the mesocarp, which in citrus fruits consists of the white, spongy "albedo", or "pith" . The innermost layer of the pericarp is the endocarp. The segments are also called "liths", and the space inside each lith is a locule filled with juice vesicles, or "pulp". From the endocarp, string-like "hairs" extend into the locules, which provide nourishment to the fruit as it develops.
Citrus fruits are notable for their fragrance, partly due to flavonoids and limonoids (which in turn are terpenes) contained in the rind, and most are juice-laden. The juice contains a high quantity of citric acid giving them their characteristic sharp flavour. The genus is commercially important as many species are cultivated for their fruit, which is eaten fresh, pressed for juice, or preserved in marmalades and pickles. They are also good sources of vitamin C and flavonoids. The flavonoids include various flavanones and flavones.
Many citrus fruits, such as oranges, tangerines, grapefruits, and clementines, are generally eaten fresh. They are typically peeled and can be easily split into segments. Grapefruit is more commonly halved and eaten out of the skin with a spoon. There are special spoons (grapefruit spoons) with serrated tips designed for this purpose. Orange and grapefruit juices are also very popular breakfast beverages. More acidic citrus, such as lemons and limes, are generally not eaten on their own. Meyer Lemons can be eaten 'out of hand 'with the fragant skin; they are both sweet and sour Lemonade or limeade are popular beverages prepared by diluting the juices of these fruits and adding sugar Lemons and limes are also used as garnishes or in cooked dishes Their juice is used as... an ingredient in a variety of dishes; it can commonly be found in salad dressings and squeezed over cooked meat or vegetables.
A variety of flavours can be derived from different parts and treatments of citrus fruits. The rind and oil of the fruit is generally very bitter, especially when cooked, and so is often combined with sugar. The fruit pulp can vary from sweet and tart to extremely sour. Marmalade, a condiment derived from cooked orange and lemon, can be especially bitter, but is usually sweetened to cut the bitterness and produce a jam-like result. Lemon or lime is commonly used as a garnish for water, soft drinks, . or cocktails Citrus juices, rinds, or slices are used in a variety of mixed drinks The colourful outer skin of some citrus fruits, known as zest, is used as a flavouring in cooking;. the white inner portion of the peel, the pith , is usually avoided due to its bitterness. The zest of a citrus fruit, typically lemon or an orange, can also be soaked in water in a coffee filter, and drunk.
Oranges were historically used for their high content of vitamin C, which prevents scurvy. Scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency, and can be prevented by having 10 milligrams of vitamin C a day. An early sign of scurvy is fatigue. If ignored, later symptoms are bleeding and bruising easily. British sailors were given a ration of citrus fruits on long voyages to prevent the onset of scurvy, hence the British nickname of Limey.
Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of plants. Limes and lemons as well as oranges and grapefruits are among the highest in this level. After consumption, the peel is sometimes used as a facial cleanser. Before the development of fermentation- based processes, lemons were the primary commercial source of citric acid.
Citrus fruit intake is associated with a reduced risk of stomach cancer. Also, citrus fruit juices, such as orange, lime and lemon, may be useful for lowering the risk of specific types of kidney stones. Grapefruit is another fruit juice that can be used to lower blood pressure because it interferes with the metabolism of calcium channel blockers. Lemons have the highest concentration of citrate of any citrus fruit, and daily consumption of lemonade has been shown to decrease the rate of kidney stone formation.